How to Establish a Hunting and Game Farm
A hunting and game farm is normally run as a joint enterprise, the one supporting the other. Game animals are farmed for the purposes of meat, skin and horn off-take (culling) and tourist viewing. The culling is usually combined with sport hunting. Game farming may also yield benefits in terms of photographic safaris, fishing and many others.
LAND AND PLANNING ISSUES
Space and Infrastructure
Approach KZN Wildlife to enquire if there is sufficient space on the property for the envisaged game operations, buildings and visitor facilities. Establish from the District Municipality if there is potable water, power and adequate road access available.
The following questions should be considered:
• If people are going to arrive at the farm in their own transport, is there parking for the number of visitors you
• Is there public transport to the site and is there parking for tour buses?
Does the attractiveness of the surrounding enhance the enjoyment of visitors?
Requirements for the efficient management of the farm include:
• A facility for slaughtering, processing and packing of meat;
• Trophy processing;
• Vehicles for hunting;
• A likely minimum of 1000ha of land;
• Wildlife management;
• Marketing of carcasses and live game;
• Research on the needs of the species of game that will survive in the area, water sources, soil type and the like.
• CHASA (Confederation of Amateur Hunters’ Association of South Africa) and PHASA (Professional Hunters
Association of South Africa) who will promote your undertaking;
• Advice may be sought from your local nature conservation office.
Research may be carried out in collaboration with:
• Centre for Wildlife Management, University of Pretoria;
• Research Institute for the Economic Aspects of Game Management, University of Potchefstroom.
The following questions should be considered:
• Is the site easy to find for people using their own transport, i.e.: Are there road signs?
• Is the site within reasonable distance of main roads frequented by tourists?
The District Municipality and the Department of Transport have controls for the erection of any signs. If new access onto streets is needed, the Local Municipality will usually construct them at the cost of the developer. Permission must be obtained from the Department of Transport to construct new access points onto main roads outside the Local Municipal areas.
• Starting a game farm requires a great deal of input and it is recommended that you first contact KZN Wildlife for advice and guidance on the matter and what is required in terms of the law;
• The legislation relevant to game hunting may be found in the Nature Conservation Ordinance (15 of 1974), which can be obtained from your nearest KZN Wildlife office, or their head office in Pietermaritzburg;
• Land Use Zoning – Approach the Department of Local Government and Housing and the Local or District
Municipality about any special environmental, mining or other zones that could conflict with the intended use;
• Where the land use will be substantially changed, application must be made to the Provincial Department of
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries for permission for a change in land use in terms of the National Environmental
Management Act (107 of 1998);
• Developments on Ingonyama Trust land require a permission to occupy (PTO) certificate. Small and large
developments require an application through the Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs
and regional office of the Department of Land Affairs, respectively. A call to these departments will inform you
about the procedures to be followed. Permission of the Provincial Planning and Provincial Environment authorities
is also required;
• Registration, Licensing and Permits – Approach the District Municipality to register your business;
• If the enterprise includes the sale of perishable food, then a trading licence must be purchased for R200 from the
Business Licencing Department of the nearest Local Council;
• In order to start a hunting/game farm, it is necessary to adhere to certain requirements, e.g.: fencing,
stocking of game, farm management practices, and the like. On setting up a farm, actions taken must be
checked and authorised to the farm and permits obtained for the removal of, or the hunting of animals on the
• Various permits and licences are required by land-owners and hunters for hunting various game
species, depending on the status and schedule of the species in question. A hunter must be in possession of a
permit or licence except, subject to certain conditions, in the case of land-owners who are permitted to hunt
without a permit or licence on their own land;
• A permit authorises a land-owner or occupier either to hunt on the land himself or allow paying licensed hunters to
hunt on the land. Permits may be obtained at no cost and applications should be made verbally, or in writing, to
the local zone officer at your nearest KZN Wildlife office;
• A licence is required by a hunter who is not hunting on his own land, and must also obtain permission from the
land-owner. Licences may be purchased either from the Receiver of Revenue, certain sporting and gun shops,
or from some of the KZN Wildlife zone officers in outlying areas. The fee is dependent on the type of licence
• Clients must be accompanied by a person who is in possession of a valid professional hunters licence.
F o r overseas clients, hunts are only to be organised and marketed by a person in possession of a valid
hunting outfitters licence;
• The legal requirement to be met before a hunting outfitter or professional hunter is able to obtain a licence
on completion of a comprehensive training course at a professional hunting school;
• Regulations and By-laws – Approach the District Municipality for guidelines on fire risk to ensure that you have
adequate fire control equipment and arrangements. Approach the District Municipality to ensure that your plans
comply with their regulations on water, electricity, sewerage, noise and the like;
• Other Legal Requirements – Hunting camps, trophy preparation facilities, vehicles and staff are required to conform
to set standards as set out by the conservation authorities. Facilities which are offered to clients must be approved by
the nature conservation agencies. The hunter/outfitter is legally responsible for supplying all hunting requirements to
clients. Rules regarding the hunting season must be adhered to. Information on this is also available through the local
zone officer of KZN Wildlife. If you wish to erect a road sign in the road reserve area (as distinct from on your own
property), advertising your business, then you need approval from:
• Department of Transport in the case of national roads;
• The Facility Signs Committee in the Provincial Department of Transport in the case of secondary roads; • The Local Municipal Engineer in the case of local roads within a Local Municipality area;
• Policy – KZN Wildlife, TKZN and the Department of Arts, Culture and Tourism should be consulted for updates on policy;
• Neighbour Relations – Many existing and potential game and hunting farms adjoin (or may be located within) poor communities in the rural areas of KZN. It is an absolute necessity that the relationships between such farms and their neighbours should be good and that both should recognise the symbiotic need for each other. Therefore, it is important to strive to secure partnerships, or some formalised co-operation, with such communities as part of building a positive tourism atmosphere in South Africa, ensuring tourist safety and achieving a transfer of financial benefits to communities. The latter may be achieved by direct expenditure in such communities on curios, craft products and cultural artefacts, certain accommodation and possibly a percentage fee based upon the fees paid by the hunters/ tourists to the farm.
The promotion of such partnerships is advocated in the White Paper on the Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa. The Community Liaison Division of KZN Wildlife and Tribal Authorities may be consulted for advice on this.
LIST OF USEFUL CONTACTS
• Business Advice Centres:
Durban: (031) 308 9920
Pietermaritzburg: (033) 264 3100
• Business Partners Limited:
Durban: (031) 240 7700
Richards Bay: (035) 789 7301
• Centre for Wildlife Management
University of Pretoria:
(012) 420 2627/2569
(041) 922 5600
• Department of Economic Development and Tourism:
(033) 264 2500
• Department of Land Affairs:
(031) 355 4300
• Department of Agriculture, Environmental Affairs
and Rural Development (DAERD):
(033) 355 9690
• Ithala Development Finance Corporation Limited:
(031) 907 8911
• KZN Wildlife:
(033) 845 1999
(012) 667 2048
• South African Tourism (SA Tourism):
(011) 895 3000
• Southern Africa Tourism Services Association (SATSA):
086 127 2872/(011) 866 9996
• Tourism KwaZulu-Natal (TKZN):
(031) 366 7500